■ Workers assigned to specific stations with minimal
■ While the line is theoretically balanced within 10%,
momentary imbalances frequently stop or slow production.
■ The line is effectively balanced for the "average
worker" and cannot make use of the superior worker's skills.
■ Workers may sometimes assist their immediate
neighbors but it is difficult to move to other than adjacent stations and such movement is not
■ Cycle time is too short for practical assistance of
more than a half-minute.
■ Workers have little appreciation for how their own
work may affect other stations.
■ Workers rotate assignments and move among stations
to assist each other and balance work.
■ Workers from any station can move to a bottleneck
station for temporary assistance. The group actively encourages this and achieves near-perfect
balance both short and long term.
■ Workers with superior skills can effectively use
such skills to assist others and raise team productivity.
■ Workers understand interrelationships between tasks.
1.3 Reduce wide variations in knowledge levels and
variety through cross training.
3.2 Give workers larger and more varied tasks and
increase cycle time.
■ Workers pace themselves to line speed and individual
■ Workers have little concern for overall output.
■ Primary motivation is to not get fired (Lower order
■ Individuals are committed to team performance and set
their own production and quality goals.
■ Peer pressure resolves most discipline problems.
■ Group interaction fulfills social and esteem needs.
1.4 Achieve High performance through commitment rather
than minimal compliance. Use more carrot than stick.
1.6 Provide opportunities to satisfy unfulfilled higher
order needs. Use the intrinsic motivators.
■ Engineers design the line and decide where, when and
how tasks are performed.
■ Workers participate in the planning, design and task
■ Workers establish rules and norms for their team.
1.5 Build commitment by involving people in the shaping
of their future.
■ Training is specific to one or two workstations.
■ Task training and cross training is done within the
■ Workers learn from the experience of others as well
as from performing multiple tasks.
■ Team process learning occurs as the team coalesces
1.7 Adult learning occurs primarily through experience.
Integrate learning on the job through advisors, facilitators, and guided application.
■ Quality is controlled by sampling output several times
per day at the inspection department's location.
■ Some incoming inspection attempts to control input
quality of parts.
■ The entire workcell team is trained for normal
inspection and process control procedures.
■ SPC is utilized at specific workstations and
maintained by the team.
■ SPC is applied rigorously to incoming parts.
2.1 Control variances at their source.
2.2 Ensure that the detection of a variance and the
source of that variance occur in the same work group.
2.3 Maintain quality by detecting variances in the
process rather than in the final product.
2.4 Monitor inputs as carefully as outputs.
■ Work platforms on the line must accommodate many
significantly different models. Platforms are ill-suited for any one model.
■ Tools and fixtures for all models must be at the
line causing confusion.
■ Automation is limited and expensive because it must
accommodate numerous products.
■ Because each cell builds only a few highly similar
models, fixtures are optimized and specific tools readily available.
■ Some operations are more easily automated with
simple automation such as nut runners.
■ Certain processes can use simpler equipment because
it can be purchased and optimized for only one or two models.
■ Because of lower total volume, some equipment is more
manual and increases direct labor. However, this is usually offset by overall efficiency
2.6 Match technological flexibility with the product
2.7 Match technology scale with production volume of
the work groups.
3.4 Optimize the system rather than the system's
■ System designed by separate engineering department
with little direct input from workers.
■ System designed from mechanistic standpoint with
only token consideration of probabilistic effects and no consideration for psychological or
■ Workers participate in the planning, design and task
■ STS principles employed during the design phase.
3.1 Design the Socio and Technical systems
simultaneously and jointly.
■ All traditional support functions are performed by other departments. These include:
Maintenance, Engineering, Human Resources, Scheduling and Quality.
■ Many support functions become team responsibilities
with assistance from functional departments for difficult situations.
■ Team responsibilities include scheduling, routine
maintenance, setup, housekeeping, quality, process improvement, and some HR functions.
3.3 Integrate support functions within work groups to the largest possible extent.
■ Supervisors manage all daily work including task
assignments and problem-solving.
■ Supervisors are highly directive leaving little
opportunity for individual growth, learning or interpretation.
■ When supervisors are unavailable, individuals take
no initiative and simply wait for the supervisor to return.
■ Upper management sets goals and monitors compliance
with little input from supervisors and no input from workers.
■ Cultural management consists of motivational posters
and an occasional pep talk.
■ Work teams manage all daily work.
■ Supervisors have become coaches. They encourage the
team to resolve problems and only intercede when the team is unable to do so.
■ Coaches are the primary contacts with external
departments and parties.
■ Upper management actively manages the culture
through training, example, recognition and coaching.
4.1 Allow teams to manage the daily work.
4.2 Coach and facilitate rather than supervise.
4.3 Coaches should manage the team boundaries.
4.4 Upper management should set goals, supply
resources and manage the culture.